In the recent past years, the problem of the infections acquired within the hospitals, the so called “hospital infections” (HI) or “medical care related infection”, has arisen as one the most prominent issue in the field of infection control. Several different factors have influenced this increase: the appearance of multidrug resistant micro organisms and the extended use of invasive medical procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of patients are among the most important.
In order to control the increment of the incidence of the HI, that greatly contributes to the raise of costs for the health management, many different strategies have been developed. First of all, many hospitals set up a commission composed by ID doctors, microbiologists, nurses and statisticians that must elaborate the incidence data for HI and draw new interventional approaches for their control on a short time (hopefully weekly) base. The warning coming from the microbiology data about any possible epidemic outbreak provoked by suspected micro organism needs to be handled by this commission in the shorter possible time, in order to break down the diffusion of the epidemic to a larger number of patients or wards. A limited set of well know micro organisms has been involved in the majority of the infection outbreak in hospitals, even if the spectrum of the possibly so called “hospital pathogens” enlarges over the time.